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978-3-8439-0915-0, Reihe Energietechnik
Klaus Georg Mösl
On the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides During the Combustion of Partially Pre-Vaporized Droplets
304 Seiten, Dissertation Technische Universität München (2012), Softcover, A5
This study contributes to the topic of nitrogen oxide (NOx) formation at the level of single droplet and droplet array combustion. The influence of the degree of droplet vaporization and the influence of ambient conditions on NOx emissions are studied in detail by experiments as well as by numerical simulations. Consequently, this study illustrates correlations and dependencies of the most relevant parameters with respect to the formation of NOx. It merges the fields of droplet pre-vaporization, ignition, combustion, and exhaust gas formation, including a sophisticated approach to NOx determination. Even though the study was conducted in order to help understand the fundamental process of burning idealized droplets, the processes in spray combustion have also been taken into consideration within its scope. The portability of results obtained from those idealized droplet burning regimes is evaluated for real applications. Thus, this study may also help to derive design recommendations for liquid-fueled combustion devices.
While the experimental part focuses on droplet array combustion, the numerical part highlights spherically symmetric single droplet combustion. By performing experiments in a microgravity environment, quasi-spherical conditions were facilitated for droplet burning, and comparability was provided for the experimental and numerical results. A novelty of the numerical part is the investigation of mechanisms of NOx formation under technically relevant conditions. This includes partial pre-vaporization of the droplets as well as droplet combustion in a hot exhaust gas environment, such as an aero-engine.
The results show that the trade-off between ambient temperature and available oxygen determines the NOx formation of droplets burning in hot exhaust gas. If the ambient temperature is high and there is still sufficient oxygen for full oxidation of the fuel provided by the droplet, the maximum of NOx formation is achieved. The degree of droplet vaporization has an effect on flame stabilization around the droplet and on NOx formation. More than half of the droplet mass needs to be pre-vaporized, before the required technical effort leads to a significant reduction of the overall NOx emissions. In the ignition model, the NOx production rate turns out to be very sensitive against the ignition position. Thus, it is important to adjust the model parameters carefully to obtain realistic emission results.