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ISBN 9783843922999

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978-3-8439-2299-9, Reihe Physik

Janine Fischer
Density of States and Charge Carrier Transport in Organic Donor-Acceptor Blend Layers

165 Seiten, Dissertation Technische Universität Dresden (2015), Hardcover, A5

Zusammenfassung / Abstract

In the last 25 years, organic or “plastic” solar cells have gained commercial interest as a light-weight, flexible, colorful, and potentially low-cost technology for direct solar energy conversion into electrical power. Currently, organic solar cells with a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12 % can compete with classical silicon technology under certain conditions. In particular, a variety of strongly absorbing organic molecules is available, enabling custom-built organic solar cells for versatile applications. In order to improve the PCE, the charge carrier mobility in organic thin films must be improved. The transport characterization of the relevant materials is usually done in neat layers for simplicity. However, the active layer of highly efficient organic solar cells comprises a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) of a donor and an acceptor component necessary for effective charge carrier generation from photo-generated excitons. In the literature, the transport properties of such blend layers are hardly studied. In this work, the transport properties of typical BHJ layers are investigated using space-charge limited currents (SCLC), conductivity, impedance spectroscopy (IS), and thermally stimulated currents (TSC) in order to model the transport with numerical drift-diffusion simulations. Firstly, the influence of an exponential density of trap states on the thickness dependence of SCLCs in devices with Ohmic injection contacts is investigated by simulations. Then, the results are applied to SCLC and conductivity measurements of electron- and hole-only devices of ZnPc:C60 at different mixing ratios. Particularly, the field and charge carrier density dependence of the mobility is evaluated, suggesting that the hole transport is dominated by exponential tail states acting as trapping sites. For comparison, transport in DCV5T-Me33:C60, which shows better PCEs in solar cells, is shown not to be dominated by traps. Furthermore, a temperature-dependent IS analysis of weakly p-doped ZnPc:C60 (1:1) blend reveals the energy-resolved distribution of occupied states, containing a Gaussian trap state as well as exponential tail states. The obtained results can be considered a basis for the characterization of trap states in organic solar cells. Moreover, the precise knowledge of the transport-relevant trap states is shown to facilitate modeling of complete devices, constituting a basis for predictive simulations of optimized device structures.